Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Amblyraja: Greek, amblys = darkness + Latin, raja, -ae = ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Norman.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 20 - 350 m (Ref. 58839). Deep-water; 45°S - 74°S, 120°W - 53°E (Ref. 114953)
Southeast Pacific: Chile (Ref. 27540). Southern Ocean: around South Georgia Island and on the ridge westward towards Black Rocks. Occasionally seen on the Scotia Ridge.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 115 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953)
Found on continental and insular shelves, as well as upper slopes. Feeds mainly on small benthic invertebrates (Ref. 114953). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Reaches maturity at 80-90 cm TL; birth size at ca. 20 cm TL (Ref. 114953). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsule measures 116.5 mm long and 80.0 mm wide (Ref. 41249). Utilized as fishmeal and possibly not utilized for human consumption due to extreme roughness of its squamation (Ref. 5159).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): -1.4 - 0.5, mean -0.6 °C (based on 28 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00324 (0.00152 - 0.00688), b=3.22 (3.05 - 3.39), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming tm>5).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 3.68 [0.60, 74.79] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.312 [0.029, 4.166] mg/100g ; Protein = 15.5 [13.4, 17.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.393 [0.157, 0.959] g/100g ; Selenium = 13.2 [2.4, 63.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 6.56 [0.48, 84.64] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.219 [0.014, 2.548] mg/100g (wet weight);