Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 50 m (Ref. 1602). Tropical; 30°N - 30°S
Indo-Pacific: from Maldives to the Pitcairn group, north to the Ryukyu and Ogasawara islands, south to the southern Great Barrier Reef and New Caledonia. Throughout Oceania except Hawaii and Easter Island (Ref. 42740).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 42740)
soft rays: 16 - 17. Recognized by the busy blotched pattern over the back, close-set series of brown to orange blotches behind the eyes on top of the head, and white blotch on the tail (Ref. 48636). No row of small blackish spots in outer third of anal fin. Males with an ocellated black spot above opercle next to upper end of gill opening (female with a smaller dark brown spot at this location) (Ref 42740).
Inhabits seaward reefs, usually on patches of rubble or pavement between corals. Also found in habitats with rubble and rock (Ref. 48636) solitary or in small groups (Ref. 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.8 - 28.9, mean 27.5 °C (based on 362 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00290 - 0.01435), b=3.10 (2.92 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 101 [62, 195] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.716 [0.454, 1.116] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [16.0, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.113 [0.071, 0.182] g/100g ; Selenium = 34.7 [18.9, 63.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 78.1 [29.2, 195.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.58 [1.11, 2.23] mg/100g (wet weight);