Teleostei (teleosts) > Mulliformes
(Goatfishes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Parupeneus: Latin, parum, parvum = small + Peneus, the name of a river.
More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 80 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 30°N - 50°S
Western Pacific: Japan to Western Australia, New Caledonia and northern New Zealand. Recently reported from Tonga (Ref. 53797).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9002)
Inhabits coastal reefs and estuaries (Ref. 9002); in Indonesia mainly found on deep reefs adjacent to strong currents (Ref. 90102). Juveniles found in small schools; adults singly or in small aggregations (Ref. 9002, 48636). May also be solitary. It is rare in the East Indian region, and found only in cool areas of upwelling; but is common in subtropical latitudes (Ref. 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 18 - 28.7, mean 27.2 °C (based on 446 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00753 - 0.02106), b=3.04 (2.90 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 25.9 [12.6, 57.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.268 [0.134, 0.621] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.1 [14.8, 21.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.13 [0.07, 0.25] g/100g ; Selenium = 55.7 [26.1, 153.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 164 [29, 748] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.573 [0.339, 1.075] mg/100g (wet weight);