Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes
(Ground sharks) > Pseudotriakidae
Etymology: Gollum: Taken from a personnage of the J.R.R.Tolkien works "The Lord of the rings"; suluensis: Named in reference to the Sulu Sea, an important marine region of the southern Philippines with a rich biodiversity, which is also the type locality of this shark. The epithet suluensis established here has been used previously in combination with Gollum in biodiversity lists (i.e. Global Biodiversity Information Facility Data Portal and Global Names Index, GBIF, 2011), presumably based on holdings of the museums and collections web site for Philippine specimens. However, prior to its use herein, the name was not available (nomen nudum) as it failed to meet requirements of Article 13 of the code International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 1999 (i.e. lacking a definition or description, as well as a designated type specimen). More on authors: Last & Gaudiano.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri
Known only from off Palawan Island (Philippines) in the western sector of the Sulu Sea basin; collected on the insular slope at about 730 m depth (Ref. 87759).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 58.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 87759)
Morphology | Morphometrics
A small species of Gollum with the following combination of characters: body soft; head bell-shaped with a broadly parabolic snout; direct preorbital snout length 2.1–2.4 times eye length; preoral length 0.8–1.0 of mouth width, 1.3 times prenarial length; eye 1.4–1.5 times nostril length, more than 4.8 times spiracle length; head relatively broad, 12–14% TL; direct preorbital snout length 1.2–1.4 times interorbital space; head length 2.3–2.6 times mouth width, 8.0–9.0 times nostril width, 3.0–3.5 times preventral caudal-fin margin; length of pectoral-fin anterior margin 2.2–2.5 times its base; first dorsal-fin inner margin 0.5–0.6 of pectoral-fin base; second dorsal-fin base 10–12% TL; ventral head dusky, not strongly contrasted with dorsal surface along its lateral margin; posterior edges of dorsal fins not excessively concave; tips of dorsal fins dark; ventral margin of caudal fin dusky, not strongly contrasted with rest of fin; mouth dark; monospondylous centra 44–45, diplospondylous centra 107–109, total centra 151–154 (Ref. 87759).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Last, P.R. and J.P. Gaudiano, 2011. Gollum suluensis sp. nov. (Carcharhiniformes: Pseudotriakidae), a new gollumshark from the southern Philippines. Zootaxa 3002:17-30. (Ref. 87759)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
CountriesFAO areasEcosystemsOccurrencesIntroductionsStocksEcologyDietFood itemsFood consumptionRation
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.8125 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00363 (0.00139 - 0.00949), b=3.12 (2.89 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .