Teleostei (teleosts) > Ovalentaria/misc
(Various families in series Ovalentaria) > Pomacentridae
(Damselfishes) > Microspathodontinae
Etymology: Parma: Latin, parma, -ae = a little shield.
More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 40 m (Ref. 7247). Temperate
Western Central Pacific: southeastern Australia (Capricorn Group, Great Barrier Reef to Bass Point, New South Wales), Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, New Caledonia, and northern New Zealand.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 21.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
Adults occur in lagoons and outer rocky reefs. Found only in the outer reef surge channels at the Capricorn Group in the GBR, but ubiquitous at Lord Howe Island (Ref. 9710). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205). Diurnal species (Ref. 113699).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).
Allen, G.R., 1991. Damselfishes of the world. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. 271 p. (Ref. 7247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 22.9 - 26.5, mean 25.1 °C (based on 76 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.00922 - 0.04124), b=3.00 (2.82 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.25 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 22.8 [9.8, 41.9] mg/100g; Iron = 0.218 [0.123, 0.406] mg/100g; Protein = 18.5 [17.3, 19.8] %; Omega3 = 0.274 [0.144, 0.541] g/100g; Selenium = 6.27 [2.81, 14.95] μg/100g; VitaminA = 47 [10, 223] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.711 [0.444, 1.163] mg/100g (wet weight);