Teleostei (teleosts) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 19 - 146 m (Ref. 57178). Tropical
Indo-Pacific: as far north as Japan, southward to the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819) and north Australia and westward to Madras, India.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635)
Nocturnal species. Occurs inshore over soft bottom (Ref. 7300). Lives in holes in the mud during the day. Usually trawled near river mouths (Ref. 48635).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Weber, M. and L.F. De Beaufort, 1929. The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. V. Anacanthini, Allotriognathi, Heterostomata, Berycomorphi, Percomorphi: Kuhliidae, Apogonidae, Plesiopidae, Pseudoplesiopidae, Priacanthidae, Centropomidae. E.J. Brill Ltd., Leiden. 458 p. (Ref. 4900)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 23.4 - 28.5, mean 27.3 °C (based on 836 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00413 - 0.02314), b=3.09 (2.91 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).