Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 25 m (Ref. 9407). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: India eastward through Indonesia to New Guinea, northward to southern Japan, southward to northern Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48637)
Occurs in shallow water reefs near sand or seaweed areas. Also found in estuaries and protected muddy bays; juveniles in mangroves and entering the lower reaches of streams (Ref. 9407, 48637). Solitary (Ref. 90102). Adults at moderate depths, often laying on the mud during the day (Ref. 48637).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.1 - 29.3, mean 28.6 °C (based on 2442 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02951 (0.01569 - 0.05551), b=2.90 (2.74 - 3.06), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 59 [20, 124] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.728 [0.393, 1.533] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.6 [15.4, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.238 [0.105, 0.552] g/100g ; Selenium = 35.3 [14.4, 86.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 59.6 [14.6, 222.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.31 [0.81, 2.16] mg/100g (wet weight);