Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Acanthopagrus: Greek, akantha = thorn + Greek, pagros, a kind of fish (Ref. 45335); pacificus: Name refers to its distribution in the western Pacific. .
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic. Tropical
Western Pacific: Japan to Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 21 - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 86288); 34.8 cm SL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 8 - 9. This species is distinguished from its congeners by the following set of characters: 3.5 scale rows between fifth dorsal-fin spine base and lateral line; ventral edge of first two infraorbitals above rear end of maxilla straight in fish less than ca 30 cm SL, but a moderate concavity of the ventral edge of the first two infraorbitals above the posterior part of upper jaw obvious in specimens about 35 cm SL; front edge of dorsal scaly area on head slightly curved (convex) without small scales; total gill rakers 15-19, modally 17; deeper body, 45-48% SL (mean 47% SL); A III, 8-9, usually III, 8; smaller orbit diameter, 2.9-4.9 (mean 3.7) in head length/orbit diameter; second anal-fin spine (2AS) clearly longer than third anal-fin spine (3AS), 2AS/3AS 1.2-1.56 (mean 1.4); scales on preopercle flange absent; pelvic and anal fins uniformly dark black (Ref. 86288).
Mainly in brackish waters of estuaries and inlets, coastal rivers and tidal creeks, occasionally entering lower sections of freshwater streams (Ref. 44894). Juveniles inhabit protected bays and estuaries (Ref. 47715). Usually occurs singly or small groups, but may migrate in schools (Ref. 48635). A popular angling species, often caught with hook and line (Ref. 44894).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Iwatsuki, Y., M. Kume and T. Yoshino, 2010. A new species, Acanthopagrus pacificus from the Western Pacific (Pisces, Sparidae). Bull. Natl. Mus. Nat. Sci., Ser. A, 36(4):115-130. (Ref. 86288)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01698 (0.01067 - 0.02703), b=3.06 (2.93 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=1.15).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100).