Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Tetraodontidae
(Puffers) > Canthigasterinae
Etymology: Canthigaster: Greek, kanthos = the outer or inner corner of the eye, where the lids meet, 1646 + Greek, gaster = stomach (Ref. 45335). More on author: Richardson.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 36 m (Ref. 1602), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 30°N - 24°S
Central Pacific, including Hawaiian Islands. Indian Ocean species were re-identified as Canthigaster petersii (Ref. 123151).
Population from the Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea, Queensland, and Belau differs in coloration (formerly Canthigaster papua);
Replaced by Canthigaster margaritata in the Red Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11441)
Inhabit sheltered rocky reefs (Ref. 48637). Also live in intertidal reef flats, lagoon and seaward reefs. Occur over open barren areas, also among corals and under ledges (Ref. 9710). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Often found in pairs, sometimes in small groups. Feed mainly on filamentous red and green algae and coralline red algae but also on corals, tunicates, mollusks, echinoderms, polychaetes, crustaceans and bryozoans. Common (Ref. 9710). Monogamous (Ref. 52884).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 205). Displays facultative monogamy where males are constrained to mate with a single female due to resource limitation (Ref. 52884).
Matsuura, K., S.V. Bogorodsky, A.O. Mal and T.J. Alpermann, 2020. Canthigaster aziz, a new deep-dwelling toby fish (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae) from the Red Sea. Zootaxa 4834(1):81-95. (Ref. 123151)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.1 - 29, mean 28 °C (based on 454 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02512 (0.01271 - 0.04965), b=2.93 (2.75 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.36 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 126 [49, 302] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.963 [0.593, 1.912] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [16.2, 20.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.14 [0.07, 0.27] g/100g ; Selenium = 28.1 [13.8, 63.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 47.6 [13.7, 171.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.56 [0.97, 2.52] mg/100g (wet weight);