Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 20 m (Ref. 1602). Tropical; 19°N - 12°S
Western Pacific: Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean and Indonesia to Fiji, north to the Philippines. Recently recorded from Tonga (Ref. 53797) and the northern northern Great Barrier Reef (Ref. 9710).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48637)
Inhabits clear coastal reefs in rich invertebrate habitat on shallow crests or upper zone of slopes to about 15 meters depth (Ref. 48637). Solitary or in pairs (Ref. 90102). Relatively uncommon inhabitant of coral rich areas of seaward reefs. Sexually dimorphic (Ref. 37816).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 28.2 - 29.3, mean 28.8 °C (based on 1221 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03548 (0.01708 - 0.07371), b=2.81 (2.62 - 3.00), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fec assumed to be > 10,000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 80.7 [35.0, 189.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.746 [0.374, 1.690] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.9 [15.6, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.114 [0.056, 0.222] g/100g ; Selenium = 23.8 [11.8, 50.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 96.2 [26.4, 357.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.68 [1.11, 2.54] mg/100g (wet weight);