Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 20 - 100 m (Ref. 4387). Subtropical
Western Indian Ocean: occurs only in Mozambique and Natal, South Africa.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4387); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9660)
Occur in coastal rocky and coral reefs to a depth of 100 m; juveniles pelagic in currents (Ref. 4332). Benthic omnivores. May live longer than 10 years. Spawning occurs throughout the year (Ref. 57746). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9660).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C., 1986. Oplegnathidae. p. 632-633. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4387)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.6 - 26.7, mean 25.8 °C (based on 16 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.42 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax > 10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .