Teleostei (teleosts) > Holocentriformes
(Squirrelfishes, soldierfishes) > Holocentridae
(Squirrelfishes, soldierfishes) > Holocentrinae
Etymology: Sargocentron: Greek, sargos = sargus + Greek, kentron = sting (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Forsskål.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 122 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 31°N - 38°S, 30°E - 124°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa (Ref. 4201) to the Hawaiian and Ducie islands, north to southern Japan, south to Australia; throughout Micronesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 51.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 2.6 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 126389)
soft rays: 9 - 10. Head and body red, scale edges silvery white; spinous dorsal crimson in color; other fins orange-yellow; vertically oblong crimson spot on preopercle behind eye (Ref. 4201). Five oblique scale rows on cheek; body depth 2.4-2.6 in SL; head length (HL) 2.55-2.85 in SL; lower jaw when closed slightly to moderately projecting; snout length 3.0-3.8 in HL larger than orbit diameter in adults; interorbital width 6.3-8.7 in HL; maxilla extending posteriorly to a vertical at front edge of the orbit; anterior end of nasal bone often with 2 close-set, short spines; medioposterior margin of nasal bone spineless; large nasal fossa spineless on margin; slight ridge of upper edge of suborbital bones weakly serrate; 2 subequal opercular spines; long preopercular spine, usually greater than orbit diameter in specimens at least 20 cm SL; 3rd or 4th dorsal spine longest, 1.7-2.3 in HL; 3rd anal spine 1.7-2.3 in HL (Ref. 27370).
A solitary species that inhabits a variety of reef zones from reef flats to lagoon and seaward reefs to a depth of at least 122 m and is fairly common in areas not subjected to heavy spear fishing. Found under ledges during the day (Ref. 9710). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Largest species of squirrelfish and the highest-bodied Sargocentron (Ref. 37816). Juvenile inhabits shallow protected reefs. A nocturnal species that feeds on crabs, shrimps and small fishes. Spine of preopercle venomous. Largest squirrelfish (Ref. 48635).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 1998. Revision of the Indo-Pacific squirrelfishes (Beryciformes: Holocentridae: Holocentrinae) of the genus Sargocentron, with descriptions of four new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (27):105 p. (Ref. 27370)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 2334)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.4 - 29, mean 27.8 °C (based on 1488 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.01333 - 0.02066), b=2.98 (2.93 - 3.03), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Prior r = 0.59, 95% CL = 0.39 - 0.89, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 31.2 [13.0, 121.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.443 [0.189, 1.251] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [17.3, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.14 [0.06, 0.30] g/100g ; Selenium = 41.9 [25.8, 75.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 95.3 [38.6, 226.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.33 [0.56, 2.50] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.