Teleostei (teleosts) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Hippocampus: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek,kampe = curvature (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Boulenger.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Brackish; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 20 m (Ref. 30915). Temperate; 33°S - 34°S
Southeast Atlantic: endemic to South Africa. Hippocampus capensis has the smallest known range of any seahorse and was the first to be assessed as threatened on the IUCN Red List, in 1994.
International trade is monitored through a licensing system (CITES II, since 5.15.04) and a minimum size of 10 cm applies.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 5.8  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.1 cm OT male/unsexed; (Ref. 31848); common length : 7.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4281)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Found in bays and estuaries among submerged vegetation; diurnal (Ref. 4281, 30915). Can tolerate salinities from 1-59 ppt (Ref. 30915). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Length type refers to Height (= from top of coronet to the tip of straightened tail).
Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
Lourie, S.A., R.A. Pollom and S.J. Foster, 2016. A global revision of the seahorses Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810 (Actinopterygii: Syngnathiformes): taxonomy and biogeography with recommendations for further research. Zootaxa 4146(1):1-66. (Ref. 115213)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00175 - 0.01142), b=3.00 (2.78 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=1; Fec=7).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).