Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Uranoscopoidei
(Sand dwellers) > Pinguipedidae
Etymology: Parapercis: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, perke = perch (Ref. 45335); australis: Named for its southern distribution, south of 14° south latitude. More on author: Randall.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 82 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical; 1°N - 38°S, 129°E - 172°W
Western Central Pacific: Queensland, Australia (Ref. 54621) and Tonga (Ref. 53797).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.2 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57562)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 17. D V,20-21 (rarely 20); A I,17; 14-16 (rarely 14 or 16) pectoral rays; 48-59 lateral-line scales; 3-4 + 6-8 gill rakers; 5-6 predorsal scales; ctenoid scales on cheek; front of lower jaw with 10 canine teeth; vomerine teeth in a broad chevron pattern; with palatine teeth; upper edge of subopercle with a prominent sharp spine; posterior edge of preopercle sometimes slightly irregular or partially finally serrate; body depth 4.35-4.9 in SL (20.5-23.0% SL); middle dorsal spine longest, 9.5-10.6% SL; membrane from last dorsal spine joined to base of first soft ray; slightly rounded caudal fin, 22.9-24.0% SL; color pattern essentially similar to Parapercis cylindrica except that the caudal fin is not yellow (Ref. 57562).
Type specimen collected from a depth of 3 m (Ref. 53797).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 2003. Review of the sandperches of the Parapercis cylindrica complex (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae), with description of two new species from the western Pacific. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers (72):1-19. (Ref. 57562)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.3 - 27.9, mean 26.3 °C (based on 158 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00290 - 0.01435), b=3.10 (2.92 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 467 [249, 842] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.18 [0.72, 2.08] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.5 [15.3, 19.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.221 [0.123, 0.410] g/100g ; Selenium = 53.6 [25.4, 110.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 29.4 [12.2, 70.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.74 [1.17, 2.52] mg/100g (wet weight);