Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic. Temperate
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 41299)
soft rays: 112;
Vertebrae: 64 - 65. Developed gill raker 4. No scales on head; body scales elongated and at oblique angles to each other. Opercle and preopercle entire. Ventral fins, jugular with 2 separate rays; pectoral and caudal rounded (Ref. 43544).
Oviparous, with oval pelagic eggs floating in a gelatinous mass (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chen, L.J. and K.-T. Shao, 1991. A review of the families Ophidiidae and Bythitidae from Taiwan. Bull. Inst. Zool. Academia Sinica 30 (1):9-18. (Ref. 43544)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00257 (0.00122 - 0.00544), b=3.17 (2.99 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100).