Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 20 m (Ref. 6898). Tropical; 9°N - 11°S, 94°E - 126°E (Ref. 189)
Indo-West Pacific: only Penang, Malaysia in the Indian Ocean; southern Thailand to Singapore, southern Kalimantan, Java and Sulawesi. Records of this species from India refer to the rather similar Thryssa kammalensoides.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 125279); max. published weight: 36.50 g (Ref. 125279)
soft rays: 30 - 33. Belly with 23 to 25 (rarely 24 or 26) keeled scutes from isthmus to anus. Maxilla moderate, reaching just to gill opening or a little beyond in large fishes; first supra-maxilla about half of second. A diffuse dark `saddle' on nape.
Presumably schooling and occurring mostly inshore. More data needed based on correct identifications.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Munroe, T.A. and M. Nizinski, 1999. Engraulidae. Anchovies. p. 1698-1706. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the WCP. Vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9822)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 28.4 - 29.4, mean 29 °C (based on 536 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00501 (0.00364 - 0.00690), b=3.13 (3.07 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100).