Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Anguilliformes
(Eels and morays) > Nettastomatidae
Etymology: Venefica: Latin, vena = vein + Latin, fica, facere = to make (Ref. 45335).
More on authors: Goode & Bean.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 326 - 2304 m (Ref. 37039). Deep-water
Western Central Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Suriname, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 109 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37039)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Vertebrae: 200 - 205. Other characteristics: Color brown to gray, with vertical fins edged in black and stomach and intestine black. Lateral line to anus number 60-64.
Minimum depth from Ref. 58018.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
McEachran, J.D. and J.D. Fechhelm, 1998. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico. Volume 1: Myxiniformes to Gasterosteiformes. University of Texas Press, Austin. 1112p. (Ref. 37039)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 4.6 - 10.7, mean 6.1 °C (based on 217 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00089 (0.00035 - 0.00227), b=2.98 (2.77 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming tmax>10).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (65 of 100).