Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Nemipteridae
(Threadfin breams, Whiptail breams)
Etymology: Pentapodus: Greek, pente = five + Greek, pous = feet (Ref. 45335). More on author: Tanaka.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 20 - 100 m (Ref. 9785), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 36°N - 22°S, 111°E - 136°E (Ref. 3810)
Western Pacific: southern Japan, South China Sea, Indonesia (Lombok) and northwestern Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 10.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3810); max. published weight: 108.01 g (Ref. 124708)
soft rays: 7. Head scales reaching forward to between level of anterior margin of eyes and posterior nostrils. Suborbital naked. Lower limb of preopercle naked. Pelvic fins moderately long, reaching to or almost to level of anus. Lobes of caudal fin pointed, more or less equal in length. Axillary scale present. Color: Upper half of body yellowish, lower half whitish.
Sporadic distribution (Ref. 48635), but mostly in deeper offshore waters. Sometimes enters shallow estuaries or harbors (Ref. 48635). Solitary or in small groups (Ref. 90102). Feeds on small shrimps. Rarely caught.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Russell, B.C., 1990. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 12. Nemipterid fishes of the world. (Threadfin breams, whiptail breams, monocle breams, dwarf monocle breams, and coral breams). Family Nemipteridae. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of nemipterid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(12):149p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 3810)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.6 - 28.3, mean 27.4 °C (based on 115 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01514 (0.00722 - 0.03173), b=2.97 (2.79 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.48 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 111 [53, 227] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.02 [0.54, 1.99] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.8 [15.8, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.317 [0.138, 0.716] g/100g ; Selenium = 32.1 [12.3, 68.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 75.6 [16.5, 299.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.87 [1.13, 3.11] mg/100g (wet weight);