Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 20 m (Ref. 9770). Tropical; 30°N - 32°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea south to East Africa through Indonesia and northern Australia up to Hawaii and Pitcairn islands; north to southern Japan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
Occur in shallow outer reefs subject to surge (Ref. 9770, 48637). Commonly found over barren rock or the spur-and-groove zone where there is a mixture of bare rock, rubble, and coral. Juveniles on algae reef (Ref. 48637). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Feed on algae, detritus, mollusks, crustaceans, worms, echinoderms, fishes, sponges, foraminiferans, and eggs. Territorial. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Also taken by drive-in nets (Ref. 9770). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 128797.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Matsuura, K., 2001. Balistidae. Triggerfishes. p. 3911-3928. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9770)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.8 - 29.3, mean 28.3 °C (based on 2985 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02692 (0.01566 - 0.04626), b=2.91 (2.76 - 3.06), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 47.6 [19.7, 119.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.614 [0.304, 1.369] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [16.4, 20.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.109 [0.055, 0.214] g/100g ; Selenium = 28.2 [14.6, 59.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 59 [17, 203] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.08 [0.73, 1.62] mg/100g (wet weight);