Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 36 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 30°N - 25°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to the Line, Marquesan, and Ducie islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Lord Howe and Rapa islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102)
soft rays: 36 - 45. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body depth 1.8-2.4 in SL; dorsal soft rays usually 9; pectoral rays 16-18, usually 17; gill rakers 9-7 + 19-26; caudal fin forked. Colour overall of body copper-brown, black spot at pectoral-fin base; anterior edge of first dorsal fin blackish; basal part of anal fin dusky greyish; no black margin on anal and caudal fins (Ref. 90102).
Occurs in clear, shallow lagoon and seaward reefs, quite common along the reef margin. Feeds on benthic and planktonic crustaceans, other small invertebrates, and fishes at night. By day, it forms aggregations in caves.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 25.5 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 3053 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00598 - 0.02651), b=3.02 (2.83 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.49 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 66.6 [35.2, 108.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.614 [0.369, 0.970] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [17.6, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.116 [0.074, 0.180] g/100g ; Selenium = 27.3 [16.2, 49.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 73 [23, 225] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.17 [0.82, 1.67] mg/100g (wet weight);