Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Centrarchiformes
(Basses) > Kuhliidae
Etymology: Kuhlia: Because of Heindrich Kuhl, 1797-1821; researcher also with lizards (Gekkonidae). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; demersal; catadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 2 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical; 32°N - 28°S
Asia and Oceania: Taiwan, Philippines and Indonesia to islands in the Pacific. The name Kuhlia marginata has been misapplied to other species and therefore some literature records may be suspect (Ref. 41640).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.9 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 41640)
soft rays: 11 - 12. Preorbital serrae 18-28; a few fine serrae may be present on suborbital; body depth 2.7-3.05 in SL; orbit diameter 2.75-3.3 in head length; maxilla extending to or slightly beyond a vertical at front edge of pupil; caudal concavity 2.5-3.1 in head length. Silvery, usually with blackish spots posteriorly on dorsal part of body that tends to merge to form bands anteriorly (or the dark pigment is concentrated on scale margins); most of snout and tip of chin blackish; caudal fin pale with a black posterior margin that broadens on lobe tips, then a very broad submarginal pale zone, often preceded by a chevron-shaped blackish band or row of blackish spots parallel with posterior margin; base of caudal fin with small blackish spots; a narrow white margin on soft portion of dorsal and anal fins with a broad blackish submarginal zone anteriorly that narrows posteriorly (broader in dorsal fin than anal) (Ref. 41640).
Primarily a freshwater species; extent of penetration into brackish and marine environments uncertain (Ref. 41640). Has been found in moderately deep (1.5-3 m), rocky, unshaded, flowing water areas of mid-hill rivers (Ref. 6028).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E. and H.A. Randall, 2001. Review of the fishes of the genus Kuhlia (Perciformes: Kuhliidae) of the Central Pacific. Pac. Sci. 55(3):227-256. (Ref. 41640)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00684 - 0.02212), b=3.06 (2.90 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .