Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Engraulidae
(Anchovies) > Engraulinae
Etymology: Stolephorus: Greek, stole, -es = garment + Greek, pherein = to carry (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 189). Tropical; 17°N - 11°S, 98°E - 127°E (Ref. 189)
Western Pacific: Gulf of Thailand and Java Sea. Indian Ocean records probably based on Stolephorus baganensis or Stolephorus insularis.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 189)
soft rays: 17 - 18. Belly with 6 or 7 small needle-like pre-pelvic scutes; a small pre-dorsal spine and another spine on the pelvic scute. Maxilla pointed, reaching to or beyond hind border of pre-operculum, the latter concave, indented near maxilla tip. Anal fin short, with origin below about middle of dorsal fin base. A double pigment line on back both before and behind dorsal fin.
A schooling species found in coastal waters. Adults frequently visit the lower reaches of mangroves where neritic conditions are present (Ref. 43081). More specimens and data needed.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Munroe, T.A. and M. Nizinski, 1999. Engraulidae. Anchovies. p. 1698-1706. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the WCP. Vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9822)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 28.2 - 29.1, mean 28.8 °C (based on 302 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00261 - 0.01106), b=3.18 (3.01 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K>1).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 636 [231, 1,729] mg/100g ; Iron = 3.06 [1.54, 6.28] mg/100g ; Protein = 18 [16, 20] % ; Omega3 = 1.03 [0.37, 2.90] g/100g ; Selenium = 46.9 [15.2, 133.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 42.9 [7.8, 219.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 3.16 [1.73, 5.23] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.