Teleostei (teleosts) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: More on authors: Fraser & Randall.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 18 - 60 m (Ref. 10478). Tropical; 8°N - 13°S
Indo-West Pacific: Cocos-Keeling Islands to Fiji and Palau; northward to Yaeyama Islands; south to Indonesia. Reported from the Penghu Islands (Ref. 55073).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635)
Found in caves of drop-offs; also in clear coastal to outer reefs, commonly in large black corals growing away from walls (Ref. 48635). Forms aggregations (Ref 90102). Maximum depth reported taken from Ref. 128797.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 27.2 - 28.3, mean 27.4 °C (based on 14 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00550 (0.00226 - 0.01337), b=3.27 (3.06 - 3.48), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 284 [134, 643] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.4 [0.7, 2.6] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [17.0, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.121 [0.053, 0.284] g/100g ; Selenium = 45.2 [15.8, 118.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 80 [20, 306] μg/100g ; Zinc = 3.02 [1.74, 4.83] mg/100g (wet weight);