Stolephorus indicus, Indian anchovy : fisheries, bait

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Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt, 1823)

Indian anchovy
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Stolephorus indicus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Stolephorus indicus
Picture by Ratmuangkhwang, S.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei (teleosts) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Engraulidae (Anchovies) > Engraulinae
Etymology: Stolephorus: Greek, stole, -es = garment + Greek, pherein = to carry (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous; depth range 20 - 50 m (Ref. 28016). Tropical; 30°N - 37°S, 23°E - 144°W (Ref. 189)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and South Africa, including the Persian Gulf, Madagascar and Mauritius eastward to Hong Kong, the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819), northern and eastern coasts of Australia and further east to Samoa and Tahiti.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 9.0, range 12 - ? cm
Max length : 15.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); common length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15-17; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 19 - 21. Diagnosis: Body slender, elongate, rather round in cross-section, belly rounded, with 2-6 small needle-like pre-pelvic scutes; maxilla tip pointed, reaching to or only just beyond front border of pre-operculum; hind border of pre-operculum convex, rounded; lower gillrakers 20-28; isthmus muscle tapering evenly forward to hind border of branchial membrane; pelvic fin tips not reaching to below dorsal fin origin; anal fin short, with usually 3 unbranched and 16-18 branched finrays, its origin below centre of dorsal fin base; body light transparent fleshy brown, with a silver stripe down flank; no dark pigment lines on back between head and dorsal fin (Ref. 189). Other species with such a short maxilla are Stolephorus advenus, with 7 pre-pelvic scutes, and S. pacificus, with 35-38 gillrakers; maxilla to or almost to hind border of pre-operculum in other Stolephorus species (Ref. 189).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

A schooling species occurring in coastal waters and which appears to enter at least the estuarine parts of rivers and to tolerate brackish water. Cpastal pelagic (Ref. 68964). Feeds most likely on zooplankton, but more data needed. In Manila Bay, the Philippines, it migrates out into deeper and more saline water to spawn, returning inshore immediately thereafter. Processed into nuoc-man (fish pickle) in Indo-China (Ref. 4929). Used as bait in the tuna fishery in the South Pacific, although said to be fragile. Also Ref. 58652.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

In Manila Bay, migrates out into deeper and more saline water to breed (at about 9 cm SL and above), returning immediately thereafter.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 02 March 2017


Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: occasionally
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


Special reports

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Internet sources

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: genus, species | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, Search | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 24.2 - 28.7, mean 27.9 °C (based on 362 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00454 - 0.00635), b=3.14 (3.09 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.71-1.42).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (13 of 100).
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 388 [142, 1,010] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.22 [1.20, 3.83] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [17.1, 20.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.28 [0.12, 0.64] g/100g ; Selenium = 59.4 [25.1, 135.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 25.6 [6.0, 101.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.38 [1.55, 3.73] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.