Stolephorus holodon, Natal anchovy : fisheries

Stolephorus holodon (Boulenger 1900)

Natal anchovy
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Stolephorus holodon   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Stolephorus holodon
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Engraulidae (Anchovies) > Engraulinae
Etymology: Stolephorus: Greek, stole, -es = garment + Greek, pherein = to carry (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Boulenger.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 189).   Subtropical; 24°S - 40°S, 21°E - 37°E (Ref. 189)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indian Ocean: Southwestern Indian Ocean, from northern Mozambique south to Port Elizabeth in South Africa (Ref. 189, 5430), including estuaries of Zwartkops River (Ref. 189, 5430), Kei River (Ref. 189) and Umtata River (Ref. 81587).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 189)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15-17; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 20 - 23. Diagnosis: Body somewhat compressed, belly with 6-8 small needle-like pre-pelvic scutes, no post-pelvic scutes; maxilla tip pointed, reaching to or beyond hind border of pre-operculum, the latter concave, indented near maxilla tip; lower gillrakers 24-29; anal fin short, usually with 3 unbranched and 17-20 branched finrays, its origin below about middle of dorsal fin base (Ref. 189, 5430). Of similar species in its distribution area, Stolephorus indicus is round-bodied and has a shorter maxilla, not to hind border of pre-operculum; and Encrasicholina punctifer has the anal fin origin behind the dorsal fin base (Ref. 189).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

A coastal, pelagic and schooling species; its presence in estuaries suggests that it can tolerate brackish water (Ref. 189). It is common along shore and in estuaries (Ref. 5430). It feeds on plankton, mainly copepods (Ref. 58304). It spawns in summer, usually at sea (Ref. 58304).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 28 February 2017

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Fisheries:
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 21.2 - 24.9, mean 24.3 °C (based on 12 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00435 - 0.01322), b=3.20 (3.05 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.