Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 15 - 400 m. Subtropical; 61°N - 10°N, 18°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: British Isles to north of Senegal, including the Mediterranean.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 21.9  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27156); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999)
soft rays: 60. Body ribbon-like, gradually tapering to a pointed tail. Large, oblique mouth. Teeth widely spaced on both jaws. First two rays of dorsal fin unsegmented. Caudal fin with median rays longer and free at their tip. Dorsal and anal fins more or less joined to the caudal fin.
Found on sand and mud bottom (Ref. 26999). Lives in vertical burrows but may be found swimming in midwater. Occurs singly or in groups. Feeds mainly on small crustaceans and chaetognaths (Ref. 5984).
Eggs are pelagic.
Quéro, J.-C., 1990. Cepolidae. p. 853-854. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 5985)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9.8 - 16.5, mean 11.9 °C (based on 326 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00292 - 0.00519), b=2.42 (2.34 - 2.50), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.23 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.21; tmax=8).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .