Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 60 m (Ref. 1602). Tropical; 35°N - 35°S, 95°E - 125°W (Ref. 47838)
Indo-Pacific: East Africa (south to Port Alfred, South Africa, Ref. 5372) to the Hawaiian, Marquesan, and Ducie islands, north to southern Japan, south to the Lord Howe and Rapa islands; throughout Micronesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 16.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48636)
Occur in small groups in reef flats, clear lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 48636). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Feed on soft and hard corals, also on polychaetes, small crustaceans, and filamentous algae. In Indonesia, usually seen at moderate depths, usually swimming in small groups. Adults are mainly in depth 20-60 m (Ref. 48636). Oviparous (Ref. 205), monogamous (Ref. 52884). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205). Monogamous mating is observed as both obligate and social (Ref. 52884).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.3 - 28.8, mean 27.6 °C (based on 518 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02818 (0.01700 - 0.04672), b=3.00 (2.86 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 85.1 [45.0, 130.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.753 [0.453, 1.216] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [17.5, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.122 [0.077, 0.193] g/100g ; Selenium = 36.2 [20.8, 66.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 48.7 [14.5, 161.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.3 [0.9, 1.8] mg/100g (wet weight);