Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 30 m (Ref. 1602), usually ? - 10 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 36°N - 30°S, 30°E - 150°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Hawaiian and Society islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4859)
Territorial species which occur in shallow lagoon and semi-protected seaward reefs (Ref. 48636). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Closely associated with tabular and staghorn Acropora corals upon which they feed on their polyps and mucus. Solitary or in pairs. Juveniles secretive among coral branches (Ref. 48636). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.9 - 29.3, mean 28.3 °C (based on 2980 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02138 (0.01361 - 0.03357), b=2.95 (2.82 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .