Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 40 m (Ref. 89972). Tropical; 30°N - 30°S
Pacific Ocean: Ryukyu Islands to the Great Barrier Reef and the Hawaiian, Marquesan and Ducie islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48636)
Relatively common on exposed seaward reefs; occasionally on shallow lagoon reefs in areas of rich coral growth and clear water. Juveniles in protected coral areas (Ref. 48636). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). In pairs in Indonesia but schools in some Pacific locations (Ref. 48636). Often in pairs during breeding and feed mainly on scleractinian coral polyps. Easily approached (Ref. 9710). Oviparous (Ref. 205), monogamous (Ref. 52884).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205). Monogamous mating is observed as both obligate and social (Ref. 52884).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.6 - 29.3, mean 28.1 °C (based on 1338 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02344 (0.01159 - 0.04740), b=3.00 (2.83 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.6 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 101 [52, 155] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.835 [0.508, 1.362] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [17.2, 19.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.11 [0.07, 0.18] g/100g ; Selenium = 35.4 [19.9, 66.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 43.2 [11.9, 152.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.58 [1.08, 2.27] mg/100g (wet weight);