Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 171 m (Ref. 1602). Tropical; 30°N - 28°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Hawaiian, Marquesan, and Ducie islands, north to southern Japan, south to the Great Barrier Reef and Lord Howe Island. Throughout Micronesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5372); max. reported age: 10 years (Ref. 72479)
soft rays: 19 - 22. The dorsal caudal and anal fins are bright yellow. Body color is white with a black elliptical marking along the edge of the posterior portion of the back extending across the caudal peduncle to the base of the posterior anal fin rays. A series of thin vertical black lines run across the sides, and a prominent vertical black band runs across the eye (Ref. 4855). Snout length 2.0-2.7 in HL. Body depth 1.4-1.7 in SL (Ref. 90102).
Occur in lagoon and seaward reefs, usually in pairs in coral rich areas (Ref. 1602). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Feed mainly on coral polyps and anemones, but also on small invertebrates and algae (Ref. 1602). Largest species in the genus (Ref. 9710). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205). Monogamous mating is observed as both obligate and social (Ref. 52884).
Steene, R.C., 1978. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. A.H. & A.W. Reed Pty Ltd., Australia. vol. 1. 144 p. (Ref. 4859)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 23.7 - 28.9, mean 27.6 °C (based on 1534 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02291 (0.01376 - 0.03815), b=2.94 (2.80 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.55 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 58.3 [30.1, 92.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.638 [0.384, 1.004] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [17.5, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.129 [0.080, 0.208] g/100g ; Selenium = 45.1 [26.0, 81.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 44.4 [12.7, 150.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.05 [0.73, 1.49] mg/100g (wet weight);