Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 40 m (Ref. 128797). Tropical; 30°N - 30°S, 79°E - 130°W
Indo-Pacific: Sri Lanka (Ref. 10361) and Cocos-Keeling Islands to the Hawaiian, Marquesan and Tuamoto islands, north to southern Japan, south to Rowley Shoals and New South Wales, Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)
Occur in lagoons and seaward reefs to a depth of 30 m, prefer coral-rich and clear water areas (Ref. 205). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Encountered singly, in pairs or small groups (adults often in pairs; juveniles solitary and inshore). Feed on filamentous algae, small invertebrates, coral polyps, and fish eggs. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205). Monogamous mating is observed as both obligate and social (Ref. 52884).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 25 - 29.3, mean 28.5 °C (based on 2323 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02239 (0.01381 - 0.03628), b=3.02 (2.88 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.43 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 66.5 [35.2, 103.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.669 [0.411, 1.043] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [17.5, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.104 [0.067, 0.158] g/100g ; Selenium = 32.7 [19.3, 58.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 43 [13, 139] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.21 [0.84, 1.72] mg/100g (wet weight);