Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Engraulidae
(Anchovies) > Engraulinae
Etymology: Encrasicholina: Greek, egkrasicholos, -os, -on = mixed with spleen. More on author: Rüppell.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 20 - 50 m (Ref. 28016). Tropical; 32°N - 26°S, 30°E - 170°W (Ref. 189)
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to northern Madagascar and the Bay of Bengal; southern Japan and northern coast of Australia to the Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 5 - 6.7 cm
Max length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635); common length : 7.5 cm NG male/unsexed; (Ref. 27550)
soft rays: 14 - 16. Belly rounded with 4 to 6 sharp needle-like pre-pelvic scutes. Maxilla tip pointed, projecting beyond second supra-maxilla and reaching to sub-operculum. Isthmus short, preceded by a small bony plate on urohyal between branchial membranes. Unbranched dorsal and anal fin rays only. Anal fin short. In life, a distinct blue upper edge to its lateral stripe and a dull silver or grey band on flank, the back beige.
A schooling species found inshore, but also inhabits deep bays under oceanic influence. Rarely enter mangrove waters (Ref. 43081). Probably feed mainly on planktonic crustaceans (e.g., copepods, Ref. 8591). Eggs are oval, without a knob at one end. Eggs occur intermittently in the lower reaches of mangrove waters (Ref. 43081). Utilized mostly for bait, but also for human consumption as dried fish or fermented sauce (Ref. 9987).
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.2 - 28.8, mean 27.9 °C (based on 375 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00562 (0.00476 - 0.00664), b=3.15 (3.10 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 0.6 (0.5 - 0.9) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 10 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.80-4.09; tm=0.36-0.98).
Prior r = 0.37, 95% CL = 0.25 - 0.56, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 208 [63, 542] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.24 [0.51, 2.97] mg/100g ; Protein = 20 [18, 22] % ; Omega3 = 0.241 [0.104, 0.534] g/100g ; Selenium = 46.8 [13.4, 221.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 24.5 [6.3, 122.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.63 [0.83, 3.32] mg/100g (wet weight);