Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 40 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 30°N - 25°S
Pacific Ocean: Ryukyu Islands to the Line and Ducie islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to the Great Barrier Reef.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334); common length : 38.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37816)
soft rays: 9. Coloration changes slowly with growth. The light green patch on the caudal peduncle is present on individuals as small as 15 cm and the distinctive tan facial markings are on most individuals above 20 cm. Large males develop a near-vertical forehead profile and long lobes and a well-developed lunate caudal fin.
Often seen in small schools on exposed reef flats and seaward reefs (Ref. 1602). Minimum depth reported from Ref. 90102. Feeds on benthic algae (Ref. 89972).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.3 - 28.8, mean 27.7 °C (based on 116 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00626 - 0.01833), b=3.09 (2.94 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .