Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Boopsoidea: Greek, bous = caw + Greek, ops = appearance (Ref. 45335). More on author: Castelnau.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 30 m (Ref. 3198), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C -
Southeast Atlantic: known only from the Cape to Natal in South Africa.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3678)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Occurs usually in the vicinity of scattered and flat reefs from 5 to 30 m depth. Found in shoals. Feeds on small crabs, worms, red bait and small pieces of seaweeds. Good food fish but spoils rapidly. A good bait for larger game fish.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith, J.L.B. and M.M. Smith, 1986. Sparidae. p. 580-594. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3198)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: occasionally
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.6 - 27.5, mean 25.4 °C (based on 228 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.00620 - 0.02676), b=3.03 (2.87 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 30.4 [16.1, 60.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.808 [0.430, 1.457] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.4 [19.3, 21.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.218 [0.136, 0.377] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.5 [8.4, 30.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 44.5 [12.8, 136.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.91 [0.54, 1.42] mg/100g (wet weight);