Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 40 m (Ref. 9772). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, through the East Indies, to China. Records from the east coast of Africa were probably based on misidentifications as this species does not occur there (Ref. 4373). Range extends westwards to the Persian Gulf (Ref. 9772).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 9 - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2872); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2872)
Inhabits coastal waters and estuaries. Feeds on invertebrates, particularly benthic worms. Marketed fresh and dried salted.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bianchi, G., 1985. FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Field guide to the commercial marine and brackish-water species of Pakistan. Prepared with the support of PAK/77/033 and FAO (FIRM) Regular Programme. Rome: FAO. 200 p. (Ref. 2872)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 23.3 - 29.1, mean 28.2 °C (based on 1204 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00657 - 0.01522), b=3.10 (2.98 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.32 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 464 [112, 1,484] mg/100g; Iron = 1.56 [0.59, 3.49] mg/100g; Protein = 18.6 [16.7, 20.7] %; Omega3 = 0.234 [0.125, 0.391] g/100g; Selenium = 93.9 [33.5, 279.9] μg/100g; VitaminA = 19.9 [8.0, 51.9] μg/100g; Zinc = 2.01 [0.94, 3.47] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.