Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic. Temperate
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 37.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 101569); common length : 16.9 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35840); max. published weight: 607.30 g (Ref. 115182)
Body long; circular backside, not very ridgy. Big mouth, lower jaw protruding. Rounded dark spots on the head, operculum and body sides (Ref. 85820).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gao, G., 1991. Serranidae. p. 363-371. In J.-H. Pan, L. Zhong, C.-Y. Zheng, H.-L. Wu and J.-H. Liu (eds). 1991. The freshwater fishes of Guangdong Province. Guangdong Science and Technology Press, Guangzhou. 589 pp. (Ref. 33450)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00677 - 0.01619), b=3.02 (2.89 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100).