Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Tropical; - 28°S
Western Atlantic: West Indies, then from Panama to Santa Catarina, Brazil (Ref. 40101).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 102462); max. published weight: 143.89 g (Ref. 102462)
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ramjohn, D.D., 1999. Checklist of coastal and marine fishes of Trinidad and Tobago. Marine Fishery Analysis Unit, Fisheries Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources, Trinidad and Tobago. Fisheries Information Series 8, 151 p. (Ref. 33407)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00166 - 0.01096), b=3.17 (2.94 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).