Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 41500), usually 5 - 150 m (Ref. 36453). Subtropical; - 53°S
Southwest Atlantic: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to Patagonia, Argentina.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 21.2  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm NG male/unsexed; (Ref. 36453)
Feeds on amphipods, small crabs and polychaetes (Ref. 36453). In spring mature individuals migrate to 37°S and southwards to spawn and in autumn migrate offshore for feeding and growing (Ref. 41500).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Nakamura, I., T. Inada, M. Takeda and H. Hatanaka, 1986. Important fishes trawled off Patagonia. Japan Marine Fishery Resource Research Center, Tokyo. 369 p. (Ref. 27363)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 6.3 - 22.9, mean 12.1 °C (based on 642 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00274 - 0.00727), b=3.21 (3.07 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.49 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100).