Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Rajella: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Norman.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 102 - 1207 m (Ref. 106604). Deep-water
Eastern Atlantic: off Mauritania to South Africa, probably throughout on the deep, middle and upper slope, even on outer shelf of Namibia and South Africa.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 75.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 106604)
Found on the outer shelf and upper slope (Ref. 5578). Feeds on small crustaceans, squid and polychaete worms (Ref. 5578). Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205). Taken by hake trawlers (Ref. 5578).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.6 - 11.8, mean 7.3 °C (based on 89 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00302 (0.00143 - 0.00636), b=3.23 (3.06 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.43 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 14.1 [2.5, 45.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.328 [0.072, 0.839] mg/100g ; Protein = 15.7 [13.3, 18.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.445 [0.173, 1.313] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.5 [4.6, 50.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 6.94 [2.04, 23.89] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.362 [0.179, 0.773] mg/100g (wet weight);