Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Arhynchobatidae
Etymology: Sympterygia: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, pteryx = fin (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Cope.
Four nominal species of Psammobatis (asper, caudispina, chilcae, maculatus), all from Hildebrand, 1946, are considered valid in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. May 2011: Ref. 86870) following Chirichigno & Vélez (1998), but J. McEachran confirmed their synonym status of Sympterygia brevicaudata (Cope, 1877) (pers. comm., 11/2003).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 18 m (Ref. 58018). Subtropical; 3°S - 37°S
Southeast Pacific: Ecuador to central Chile. Two specimens have been recorded from Uruguay but these may be in error.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 38.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. )
Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205). Max. length (Johnny Labbe, pers. comm., 2000).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 15.3 - 21, mean 19.5 °C (based on 100 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00575 (0.00290 - 0.01143), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 42.7 [6.6, 208.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.876 [0.232, 2.569] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.6 [14.9, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.444 [0.145, 1.605] g/100g ; Selenium = 11 [3, 37] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 17.9 [5.8, 55.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.73 [0.34, 1.35] mg/100g (wet weight);