Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Arhynchobatidae
Etymology: Sympterygia: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, pteryx = fin (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Müller & Henle.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 150 m (Ref. 54460). Temperate; 32°S - 44°S
Southeast Pacific: Chile (Ref. 27540). Southwest Atlantic: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil to Rawson, Argentina.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 64 - ? cm
Max length : 63.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 26408)
Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 8.1 cm long and 4.6 cm wide (Ref. 41249). A common by-catch in the coastal and continental shelf bottom-trawl fisheries of the Argentine-Uruguayan Common Fishing Zone; also fished extensively by bottom longline (Ref. 54460).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.7 - 16.4, mean 12.1 °C (based on 114 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00372 (0.00242 - 0.00569), b=3.11 (2.98 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 18.7 [2.8, 58.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.221 [0.057, 0.537] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.3 [14.1, 18.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.791 [0.335, 2.361] g/100g ; Selenium = 13.5 [2.9, 36.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 20.3 [7.3, 55.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.429 [0.211, 0.867] mg/100g (wet weight);