Squatina guggenheim, Angular angel shark

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Squatina guggenheim Marini, 1936

Angular angel shark
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Squatina guggenheim   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Squatiniformes (Angel sharks) > Squatinidae (Angel sharks)
Etymology: Squatina: Latin for skate, which angel sharks superficially resemble, presumably tautonymous with Squalus squatina Linnaeus 1758 (no species mentioned). (See ETYFish);  guggenheim: In honor of the Guggenheim Institución (presumably the present-day John Simon Guggenheim Foundation), which apparently funded the “study trip” (translation) that led to the description of this species. (See ETYFish).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 4 - 360 m (Ref. 57911), usually 4 - 266 m (Ref. 55667). Subtropical; 20°S - 45°S, 68°W - 40°W (Ref. 57911)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Southwest Atlantic: southern Brazil and Argentina.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 74.2  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 129 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57911); 130.0 cm TL (female); common length : 89.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55667)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

This species is distinguished by the following characters: with a single (or multiple in juveniles) row of enlarged, conical and morphologically distinct dermal denticles over dorsal longitudinal midline, from midlength of the pectoral fin base to origin of first dorsal fin (in some specimens, to origin of caudal fin); dorsal midline denticles are with enlarged and rounded basal plate, 3-4 times diameter of other dorsal denticles, crown with several median ridges (10-12), and crown apex acute and smooth, without ridges (vs. dorsal midline denticles on trunk morphologically similar to other trunk denticles and barely organized in a row in S. occulta and S. argentina); differs from S. occulta by having larger and fewer white blotches on dorsal surface, without surrounding blackish rings (i.e. absence of ocelli-like markings) and smaller in size at maturity, from 73.0-80.0 cm TL (vs. greater than 100.0 cm TL in S. occulta); differs from S. argentina by its ligther background colour, light to dark brown (vs. dark brown to reddish brown), with larger and fewer white blotches over dorsal surface, with a pair of enlarged, conical and morphologically distinct dermal denticles between spiracles (vs. interspiracular surface covered by smaller dorsal denticles, no enlarged denticles), the lower number of tooth rows with 18-22 vertical rows in both upper and lower jaws, tooth formula 9-9 to 11-11/9-9 to 11-11 (vs. 12-12/12-12 in i>S. argentina), and with a straight external pectoral fin margin (vs. with convex anterior half of external margin). Colouration: dorsal color pattern of light to dark brown background, with several white, creamy-white or yellowish large and rounded blotches variable in size (between one-half to 1.5 times eye-length) on entire dorsal surface (Ref. 95520).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Bony fishes were the main food followed by crustaceans and molluscs (Ref. 55667). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Adult males are characterized by the presence of a patch of small spines near the tip of the pectoral fins (Ref. 86510).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Ovoviviparous, embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Only the left ovary is functional (Ref. 57911).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Vaz, D.F.B. and M.R. De Carvalho, 2013. Morphological and taxonomic revision of species of Squatina from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (Chondrichthyes: Squatiniformes: Squatinidae). Zootaxa 3695(1):001-081. (Ref. 95520)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435)

  Endangered (EN) (A2bd); Date assessed: 07 June 2018


Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

More information

Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


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Internet sources

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: genus, species | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, Search | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 11.7 - 20.4, mean 15.8 °C (based on 228 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00293 - 0.01558), b=3.07 (2.88 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=4-10).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (78 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 18.6 [3.4, 85.9] mg/100g; Iron = 0.762 [0.196, 2.146] mg/100g; Protein = 20.1 [18.0, 22.1] %; Omega3 = 0.441 [0.196, 0.945] g/100g; Selenium = 26.6 [7.5, 70.5] μg/100g; VitaminA = 11.3 [4.1, 33.1] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.478 [0.237, 0.881] mg/100g (wet weight);