Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 20 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 30°N - 24°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa (Ref. 33390) to the Hawaiian, Marquesan, and Tuamoto islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to the Great Barrier Reef.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 72.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102)
soft rays: 0;
Vertebrae: 132 - 137. Body grey with fine pale barring (Ref. 48635). Young with 25-30 dark brown bars separated by white narrow interspaces; bars become obscure with age where in large adults, the pattern becomes mottled brown; corner of mouth dark brown. Head usually lighter, yellowish with variable dark blotching (Ref. 48635).
Inhabits reef flats, clear shallow lagoons, and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Feeds mainly on small crustaceans during both day and night (Ref. 9710).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chen, H.-M., K.-T. Shao and C.T. Chen, 1994. A review of the muraenid eels (Family Muraenidae) from Taiwan with descriptions of twelve new records. Zool. Stud. 33(1):44-64. (Ref. 6934)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 25.2 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 2833 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00050 (0.00033 - 0.00077), b=3.30 (3.18 - 3.42), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 37.3 [20.3, 61.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.477 [0.288, 0.961] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.4, 21.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.0945 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 35.2 [19.9, 70.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 65.2 [18.1, 200.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.08 [0.77, 1.49] mg/100g (wet weight);