Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; pelagic; pH range: 5.6 - 7.8; dH range: ? - 30. Subtropical; 23°C - 27°C (Ref. 1672)
Central and South America: São Francisco, Amazon, Paraná, Orinoco and Magdalena River basins, and coastal rivers in Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 16.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 28.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 121647); max. published weight: 520.00 g (Ref. 121647)
Opercular ocellus present.
Obligate air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Inhabits swamps and creeks with little current (Ref. 12225), as well as in flooded savannas (Ref. 27188). Regularly goes to the surface of the water to breathe. Can survive long periods out of the water. This behavior of breathing air at the surface makes the fish vulnerable to predation by electric eels (Ref. 27188). Is a predaceous omnivore of open waters. Feeds on aquatic invertebrates and to lesser degree, on fish. Specimens measuring 16 cm were found to be mature (Ref. 12225).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oyakawa, O.T., 2003. Erythrinidae (Trahiras). p. 238-240. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 37025)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00643 - 0.01629), b=3.14 (3.00 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.49 se; based on food items.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100).