Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range ? - 150 m (Ref. 114953). Tropical; 24°N - 19°S, 107°W - 80°W (Ref. 114953)
Eastern Pacific: southeastern Gulf of California, Mexico to Peru (Ref. 97056). Not recorded in Compagno's 1999 checklist (Ref. 35766).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 43.0  range ? - 45 cm
Max length : 78.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953)
Benthic species of continental shelf on rocky and sandy bottoms to depths of 150 m. It is a night feeder, mainly on small fishes and prawns (Ref. 114953). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Maturity size of males at ca. 47 cm TL, females at ca. 45 cm TL. Species born at ca. 18 cm TL. It is a likely bycatch of gillnet and prawn trawl fisheries (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Acero, A.P. and R. Franke, 1995. Nuevos registros de peces cartilaginosos del Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona (Pacífico Colombiano), II. Rayas y descripción de una nueva especie. Biblioteca Jose Jeronimo Triana (11):9-21. (Ref. 13259)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00264 - 0.01991), b=3.00 (2.77 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.59 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100).