Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; pelagic. Tropical
Africa: Congo River basin: from Pool Malebo (Ref. 42480) up to the upper Lualaba (Ref. 2970, 42019, 45616, 80290) and Luapula (Ref. 1878, 42135, 80290, 85675) in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of Congo, Central African Republic, Angola and Zambia. Lower Guinea: found in coastal River basins in Cameroon, Gabon and the Republic of Congo (Ref. 80290). Also reported from Lake Tanganyika, the Malagarazi River (Ref. 36901) and the Rusizi River (Ref. 98755).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2880)
Omnivore; remnants of insect larvae (Ref. 36901), weed, beetles and other insects (Ref. 42135) and fish (Ref. 36899) found in stomach. Juveniles predominantly insectivore, piscivore as adults (Ref. 85675).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paugy, D., 1990. Characidae. p. 195-236. In C. Lévêque, D. Paugy and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux douces et saumâtres de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Tome I. Coll. Faune Tropicale n° XXVIII. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren et O.R.S.T.O.M., Paris, 384 p. (Ref. 2880)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00663 - 0.02181), b=3.03 (2.87 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 122 [49, 343] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.64 [1.19, 6.24] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [17, 21] % ; Omega3 = 0.431 [0.153, 1.295] g/100g ; Selenium = 80.6 [29.5, 236.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.3 [3.1, 40.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.1 [1.3, 3.3] mg/100g (wet weight);