Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; pelagic; pH range: 6.0 - 6.5; dH range: 4 - 18; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 24°C - 27°C (Ref. 13371)
Africa: Chad, Niger, Volta, Gambia, Senegal (Ref. 2880, 81279). Outside West Africa this species is found in Nile basin, including Lower Nile, White Nile, Blue Nile and Murchison Nile (Ref. 5331) and Lake Mobutu Sese Seko [=Lake Albert] and Omo-Lake Turkana system (Ref. 2880).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 22 - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2880); max. published weight: 600.00 g (Ref. 3799); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 2758)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 21 - 26;
Vertebrae: 45 - 48. Diagnosis: multicuspid teeth set in two rows and not overlapping the jaws when the mouth is closed; teeth stout, not compressed; eyes without or with weakly developed adipose lids; anal fin with 22-26 rays (Ref. 28714). At most 27 gill rakers on lower limb of first gill arch (18-27); 3 unbranched and 18-23 branched anal-fin rays; dorsal-fin origin distinctly behind level of pelvic-fin insertions (Ref. 2880, 81279). Scales small (Ref. 28714), 43-51 in lateral line (Ref. 2880, 81279).
Omnivorous, stomachs examined contained seeds, zooplankton, insects or fish fry (Ref. 28714). Two subspecies: Alestes dentex dentex in the Nile and Alestes dentex sethente (Valenciennes, 1849) in Sudanian basins of West Africa.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Up to 300 eggs are scattered on the bottom. Larvae hatch after about 6 days.
Paugy, D., 1990. Characidae. p. 195-236. In C. Lévêque, D. Paugy and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux douces et saumâtres de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Tome I. Coll. Faune Tropicale n° XXVIII. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren et O.R.S.T.O.M., Paris, 384 p. (Ref. 2880)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00528 - 0.02495), b=3.00 (2.82 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=7; tm=2; K=0.43-.075).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 96.6 [36.9, 226.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.87 [0.93, 4.50] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [17.1, 21.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.469 [0.182, 1.290] g/100g ; Selenium = 56.3 [23.4, 146.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 25.4 [9.0, 69.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.74 [1.21, 2.54] mg/100g (wet weight);