Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Centrarchiformes
(Basses) > Kuhliidae
Etymology: Kuhlia: Because of Heindrich Kuhl, 1797-1821; researcher also with lizards (Gekkonidae). More on author: Steindachner.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; amphidromous; depth range 0 - 20 m (Ref. 89972). Tropical; 35°N - 60°S, 137°E - 128°W
Pacific Ocean: widely distributed around oceanic islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 89972)
soft rays: 11 - 12. Preorbital serrae 10-20; body depth 2.6-2.9 in SL; dorsal profile of head nearly straight; eye not very large, orbit diameter 3.0-3.45 in head length; caudal concavity 1.45-1.7 in head length; third anal fin spine longer than second; pelvic fin spine 2.3-2.9 in head length. Silvery with a coarse silver and black reticulum dorsally on head; posterior edge of caudal fin blackish (Ref. 41640).
Length at maturity about 18 cm. Taken with hook and line using bread or shrimp for bait (Ref. 44091). A native Hawaiian fish found in both marine and freshwater habitats. Feeds on fishes, invertebrates, and insects. Sr/Ca profiles from otoliths of juvenile and adult fish from fresh and salt water indicated that use of stream habitats by this species is facultative (Ref. 51353).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E. and H.A. Randall, 2001. Review of the fishes of the genus Kuhlia (Perciformes: Kuhliidae) of the Central Pacific. Pac. Sci. 55(3):227-256. (Ref. 41640)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 28.9, mean 27.4 °C (based on 579 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.00978 - 0.03889), b=3.08 (2.90 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.56 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.33).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 209 [116, 341] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.995 [0.563, 1.700] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.2 [16.3, 18.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.529 [0.259, 1.111] g/100g ; Selenium = 46.7 [22.6, 105.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 57 [23, 152] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.79 [1.25, 2.56] mg/100g (wet weight);