Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 170 m (Ref. 4781). Subtropical; 44°N - 16°S, 17°W - 35°E (Ref. 54696)
Eastern Atlantic: Portugal to Angola, including the southwestern Mediterranean, Madeira, and the Canary Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4781); common length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4781); max. published weight: 3.0 kg (Ref. 4699)
Adults Inhabit hard bottoms (rock or rubble); the young occur near the coast. Feed mainly on mollusks including cephalopods, and also on crustaceans (Ref. 3688). Important food fish.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 14.3 - 27.5, mean 19 °C (based on 382 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02089 (0.00979 - 0.04459), b=2.97 (2.80 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (59 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 35.5 [15.8, 63.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.98 [0.30, 2.67] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.3 [17.7, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.222 [0.127, 0.383] g/100g ; Selenium = 37.6 [15.8, 83.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.1 [2.3, 47.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.571 [0.293, 1.197] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.