Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.0 - 7.0; dH range: 15 - ?; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 22°C - 26°C (Ref. 2059)
Asia: Afghanistan in the west to Indonesia through South and Central Asia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 10 - ? cm
Max length : 32.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 125890); common length : 5.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35840); max. published weight: 286.83 g (Ref. 125890)
White dorsal, anal and caudal margins; 3-3+1/2 scales between the lateral line and the base of the anterior dorsal rays; relatively small size (Ref. 27732).
Obligate air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Found in hill streams (Ref. 27732). Adults inhabit medium to large rivers, brooks, rapid-running mountain streams and stagnant water bodies including sluggish flowing canals (Ref. 12975). Feed at night on small fish, insects and crustaceans (Ref. 85309). Exhibit parental care, with the male brooding eggs and fry in his mouth (Ref. 85309).
Male broods the eggs and fry in his mouth (Ref. 85309).
Kottelat, M., 2013. The fishes of the inland waters of Southeast Asia: a catalogue and core bibliography of the fishes known to occur in freshwaters, mangroves and estuaries. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 2013 (Suppl. 27):1-663. (Ref. 94476)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00720 - 0.01103), b=2.98 (2.93 - 3.03), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.62 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.50; Fec=389).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100).